Format the Reference List
The reference page provides information about the resources used in your paper. Except for a few exceptions (classical works and personal communications, etc.), any source cited in your paper must have an entry in the reference list.
To format the reference page of the paper:
Center the word References at the top of the page.
Place your references in alphabetical order
Select all of the references and set them to be double spaced and have a hanging indent.
APA Style Reference ExamplesMore than 100 reference examples and their corresponding in-text citations. Look for the type of work (e.g., journal article, webpage) to determine the format.
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy
Freeman, R., Doughty, J., Macdonald, M. E., & Muirhead, V. (2020). Inclusion oral health: Advancing a theoretical framework for policy, research and practice. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology, 48(1), 1–6. https://doi-org.suscorp.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/cdoe.12500
Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000185
Note: If the journal article does not have a DOI and is from an academic research database, end the reference after the page range. Do not include database information in the reference unless the journal article comes from a database that publishes works of limited circulation or original, proprietary content, such as UpToDate.
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, pages.
Carey, B. (2019, March 22). Can we get better at forgetting? The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/22/health/memory-forgetting-psychology.html
Rodell, B. (2020, January 15). Looking toward a new era of Australian cuisine. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/15/dining/australian-food-restaurants.html
Webpage with Author
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year, Month Day). Title of page. Site Name. URL
National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, July). Anxiety disorders. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml
Woodyatt, A. (2019, September 10). Daytime naps once or twice a week may be linked to a healthy heart, researchers say. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/09/10/health/nap-heart-health-wellness-intl-scli/index.html
Website: No Author Listed
Title of page. (Year, Month Day). Site name. URL
Programming language. (2020, February 15). Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Programming_language
Webpage with an organization group author
Organization Name. (Year, Month Day). Title of page. URL
World Health Organization. (2018, May 24). The top 10 causes of death. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine Title, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy
Lyons, D. (2009, June 15). Don’t ‘iTune’ us: It’s geeks versus writers. Guess who’s winning. Newsweek, 153(24), 27.
Schaefer, N. K., & Shapiro, B. (2019, September 6). New middle chapter in the story of human evolution. Science, 365(6457), 981–982. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aay3550
Schulman, M. (2019, September 9). Superfans: A love story. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/09/16/superfans-a-love-story
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name.
- Use the same format for both print books and ebooks.
- Use the copyright date shown on the book’s copyright page as the year of publication in the reference, even if the copyright date is different than the release date.
- Include any edition information in parentheses after the title, without italics.
- If the book includes a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.
Rabinowitz, F. E. (2019). Deepening group psychotherapy with men: Stories and insights for the journey. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000132-000
Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books.
Edited Book Chapter
Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. F. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345–359). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000120-016
Torino, G. C., Rivera, D. P., Capodilupo, C. M., Nadal, K. L., & Sue, D. W. (Eds.). (2019). Microaggression theory: Influence and implications. John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119466642
Creator. (Year). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle [Type of work, e.g, Painting, Photograph, Sculpture, etc.]. Source name (usually the name of the website). URL.
Image with no attribution required
If the license associated with clip art or a stock image states “no attribution required,” then do not provide an APA Style reference, in-text citation, or copyright attribution. For example, an image from Pixabay might have a license that says the image is free to reproduce with no attribution required. To use the image as a figure in an APA Style paper, provide a figure number and title and then the image. If desired, describe the image in a figure note. In a presentation (such as a PowerPoint presentation), the figure number, title, and note are optional.
Beach on an island
Note. The study took place on an island in the Pacific Ocean.
Image requiring attribution
Dog in the snow
Note. From Lava [Photograph], by Denali National Park and Preserve, 2013, Flickr (https://www.flickr.com/photos/denalinps/8639280606/). CC BY 2.0.
In reference section:
Denali National Park and Preserve. (2013). Lava [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/denalinps/8639280606/
van Gogh, V. (1889). The starry night [Painting]. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, United States. https://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/vincent-van-gogh-the-starry-night-1889/
See the APA Style Guide website for details on how to cite using popular social media platforms including Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, Reddit, TikTok, and Twitter.
Director Last name, First initial. (Director).(Year). Film title [Film]. Production company or companies separated by a semicolon.
Fleming, V. (Director). (1939). Gone with the wind [Film]. Selznick International Pictures; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
TED Talk Video
Speaker Last name, First initial. (Year, Month Day). Talk title [Video]. TED Conferences. URL
Cuddy, A. (2012, June). Your body language may shape who you are [Video]. Ted Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/amy_cuddy_your_body_language_may_shape_who_you_are
Executive producer Last name, First initial. (Executive Producer).(Years aired). Series title [TV Series]. Production company or companies separated by a semicolon.
Serling, R. (Executive Producer). (1959–1964). The twilight zone [TV series]. Cayuga Productions; CBS Productions.
Name of the account. (Upload date Year, Month Day). Video title [Video]. YouTube. URL
Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guRoWTYfxMs
Report by a Government Agency
Agency responsible for the report. (Year, Month Day). Report title. Parent agencies. URL
National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/takingtime.pdf
- Parenthetical citation: (National Cancer Institute, 2019)
- Narrative citation: National Cancer Institute (2019)