Welcome! Sullivan University's College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences uses the AMA citation style to format papers and cite sources. If you have questions about AMA style that cannot be answered using the AMA Manual of Style or this guide, please check with your instructor for specific directions.
One to six authors (list all authors):
Mokdad AH, Bowman BA, Ford ES, Vinicor F, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the US. JAMA. 2001; 286(10): 1195-1200.
More than six authors (list THREE and add "et al."):
McGlynn EA, Asche S, Adams J, et al. The quality of healthcare delivered to adults in the United States. N Eng J Med. 2003 Jun 26; 348(26):2635-2645.
Authors representing a group:
Moher D, Schulz KF, Altman D; for the CONSORT Group. The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials. JAMA. 2001;285(15):1987-1991.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Plan and operation of the third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988-1994. Vital Health Stat. 1994; 1:1-307.
Pope HG Jr. Drug use and lifestyle among college undergraduates: a 30-year longitudinal study. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(9):1519-1521.
Chambers FH III, Winston LG. Mupirocin prophylaxis misses by a nose [editorial]. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(6):484-486.
No author listed:
Annual smoking attributable mortality, years of potential life lost and economic costs: United States 1995-1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002;51:300-303.
Abstracts, commentaries, letters:
Lofwal MR, Strain EC, Brooner RK, Kindbom KA, Bigelow GE. Characteristics of older methadone maintenance (MM) patients [abstract]. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002;66(suppl 1): S105.
Tor M, Turker H. International approaches to the prescription of long-term oxygen therapy [letter]. Eur Respir J. 2002;20(1):242.
Articles from online journals with DOI number:
Miller N. Writing skills for pharmacy students are lacking. Am J Pharm Edu. 2015;3(1):17-29. doi: 77.3230.
Flores HR, Martinez RL. Outdoor exercise reduces risk of hypovitaminosis D in the obese. J Steroid Biochem Mol Bio. 2007;103(3-4):679-681. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.206.12.032
Articles in a foreign language:
Ernest P, Jandrain B, Scheen A. Strengths and weaknesses of clinical trials [translated from French by Ernest P]. Rev Med Liege. 2015;70(5-6):232–6.
Note: if the resource you are citing requires subscription access, cite only the main webpage, rather than the specific URL where you found the information.
Drug name. In: Database name online. Publication city, state: Publisher. Copyright date. URL. Accessed date.
Rivaroxaban. In: Lexi-Drugs [online database]. Hudson, OH. Accessed 2020 Mar 23.
Marion, DW. Diaphragmatic pacing. In: UpToDate [online database]. Waltham, MA. Accessed on 2019 Nov 25.
Nitroprusside. In: Clinical Pharmacology [online database]. Tampa, FL. Accessed 2020 May 23.
Entanercept. DrugPoints Summary. Micromedex 2.0 [online database]. Greenwood Village, CO: Truven Health Analytics, Inc. Available at http://www.micromedexsolutions.com. Accessed 2020 August 13.
Kava (piper methysticum). In: Natural Standard [online database]. Somerville, MA: Therapeutic Research, Inc. Available at http://naturalmedicines-therapeuticresearch-com. Accessed 2020 Jan 23.
Drug Facts & Comparisons
Minoxidil. In: Drug Facts and Comparisons [online database]. St Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, LLC. Available at http://online.factsandcomparisons.com. Accessed 2020 Mar 22.
Guidelines can be cited in similar fashion to journal articles and websites, depending on the source.
Example: The "2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults" was published in the journal Circulation in November 2013. The guidelines are found by searching the American Heart Association website.
Stone N, Robinson L, Lichtenstein A, et al. 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines. Circulation. Published online 2013 Nov 12.
Levine GN, Bates ER, Blankenship JC, et.al. 2011 ACCF/AHA/SCAI guideline for percutaneous coronary intervention. American Heart Association. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/124/23/e574. Published 2011 Nov 7; accessed 2014 Feb 16.
Author(s). Title. Name of website. URL. Published date; updated date; accessed date.
FDA/SEDR resources page. Food and Drug Adminsitration website. http://www.fda.gov/cder/approval/index.htm. Published: unknown; updated 2013 Apr; accessed 2015 Jan 25.
Childress BC. The INCAPS model for delivery of pharmaceutical care in the comunity setting. Ambulatory Care Watch website. http://www.amcarewatch.com/page24239823/. Published 2011 Nov 23; accessed 2014 Dec 1.
Online journal articles:
Author(s). Title. Journal name [using NLM abbreviation]. Year;volume(number):pages. URL. Published date; updated date; accessed date.
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. United States National Library of Medicine website. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html. Published 2003 Jul 9; updated 2005 Sep 25; accessed 2014 Aug 21.
Kolata G. Experts unlock clues to spread of 1918 flu virus. New York Times [serial online]. 2005 Oct 6;155(53359):A1-A20. Available from Academic Search Premier EBSCOhost, Ipswich, MA. Published 2004 Nov 5; accessed 2013 Sep 24.
When citing EBSCOhost, "EBSCO" is always in uppercase; "host" is always in lowercase.
Name of company that licensed the software. Name of database (version) [operating system]. Retrieved from URL. Published date; updated date; accessed date.
Lexi-Comp, Inc. Lexi-Drugs (version 2.1) [Android OS application]. Retrieved from http://www.lexicomp.com/mobile. Published 2014; accessed 2014 Aug 21.
Epocrates. Epocrates Essentials (version 5.1) [Apple iOS application]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com. Published 2013; accessed 2014 Aug 21.
One to six authors/editors:
Davis NM. Medical abbreviations: 26,00 conveniences at the expense of communications and safety. 12th ed. Huntington Valley, PA: Neil M Davis Associates; 2005: 173.
Aronson JK, Miller N, Milby J, McDonald FQ, Pittman J, Meece T. Meyler's side effects of drugs: the international encyclopedia of adverse drug reactions and interactions, vol 1. 15th ed. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier; 2006: xi-xiii.
More than six authors/editors (list THREE and add "et.al."):
Aronof GR, Berns JS, Brier ME, et al., eds. Applied therapeutics: the clinical use of drugs. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013: 965-966.
Chapters in a book:
Wallace RJ, Griffith DE. Chapter 7: Antimycobacterial agents. In: Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Longo DL, Braunwald E, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, eds. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 16th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005.
Multiple pages from the same source:
To cite multiple pages from the same book with differnet authors, list a separate citation for each chapter cited. In the body of your text, note the page numbers in the superscript in-text citation.
In-text citation: Cann1(p42) examines several causes for addiction relapse in healthcare professionals; furthermore, Palmer2(p109) found similar causes for relapse in workers in the financial fields.
1. Cann AD. The drugged druggist. In: McDonald's Chemical Dependency Handbook. 2nd ed. Louisville, KY: Farrell Books; 2014: 42-78.
2. Palmer E. Drugs in finance. In: McDonald's Chemcial Dependency Handbook. 2nd ed. Louisville, KY: Farrell Books; 2014: 79-107.
Books compiled by a group, agency, or committee (no author or editor):
Physicians' desk reference. 66th ed. Montvale, NJ: PDR Network; 2012: 665.
United states pharmacopeia and national formulary (USP 30-NF 25). vol 2. Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeia Convention; 2007: 1553-1554.
Print serials that are updated (no publication date, only page number after colon):
Drug facts and comparisons. St Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons: 904bb.
Tatro DS, ed. Drug interaction facts. St Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons: 397a.
Note: some internet books do not have page numbers because of the HTML format; if so, omit the page numbers at the end of the citation.
Fields HL, Martin JB. Pain: pathophysiology and management. In: Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Longo DL, Braunwald E, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005. http://www.netlibrary.com/. Accessed 2014 Feb 29.
Davidow, LW. Self-care and non-prescription pharmacotherapy. In: Berardi RR, ed in chief. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs: An Interactive Approach to Self-Care. 16th ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association; 2009. http://www.pharmacylibrary.com/. Accessed 2015 Oct 31.
Hengamet HR, Harkins B, Marshick PL. Drug-induced pulmonary diseases. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey M, eds. Pharmacotherapy: A pathophysiological approach. 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2001. http://www.accesspharmacy.com/. Accessed 2013 Dec 24.
Note: AccessPharmacy textbooks are all published by McGraw-Hill. The publisher's location is New York, NY. The edition number (e.g. "8e") is listed with the title of the book; however, the publication date is embedded within the copyright link. The "How to cite this chapter" links are useful for obtaining the chapter authors and title. Do not use this format to tcite the chapter and book, however; it is NOT in AMA format.
Rivaroxaban [package insert]. Titusville, NJ: Janssen Pharmacetuicals Corp; 2011.
Nguyen V. It's time we recognize pharmacists as providers. Courier-Journal. Louisville, KY; 2013 Oct 2: A1, A4.
Slabaugh S. America's nutrition problem. The Atlantic Monthly. 2002 Dec: 21-40.
Burris J. Kentucky's knect healthcare exchange: first of two parts. N Eng J Med. 2012;576:161-162.
DVDs, Videos, other Media:
Holzknect J. History of physical therapy in the United States [DVD]. New York, NY: Insight Media; 2007.
Letter to the Editor:
Talley C. Sterile compounding in hospital pharmacies [editorial]. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2003;60(24):2563.
Personal Communication (such as an email or conversation)
Note: The AMA Manual of Style says to never include personal communication in your reference list. AMA style only permits inclusion of personal communication in your text. Permission from the author is required.
According to an August 2012 email from local pharmacist J Addison…
Presentation, Lecture, Poster Presentation (unpublished material)
Presenter(s). Title of presentation. Description of presentation context; date; City, State (or, Province or Country).
Note: You will need to clarify whether your instructor permits citing lecture material. Not everyone allows this—always talk to your instructor.
Gordon S. Demystifying citing information in your written work. Presented as part of Pharmacy 127; February 13, 2013; Waterloo, ON.
Author(s). Report title. URL. Published date. Updated date. Accessed date.
Management Committee. Moving forward: pharmacy human resources for the future final report. http://blue printforpharmacy.ca/docs/default-document-library/2011/04/19/Moving. Published September 2008. Accessed February 4, 2013.
Papers and poster sessions presented at meetings include both items that were presented but never published and items for which any subsequent publication is unknown. If subsequent publication is known, cite the published form rather than the meeting paper or poster session.
Begin the reference with information on the author(s) and title of the paper or poster session; use the same format as that used for conference papers. Use the phrases "Paper presented at:" and "Poster session presented at:" to connect author and title information with meeting information.
Although author affiliation is an optional part of a citation, including it in references to unpublished papers and poster sessions is very helpful to the reader because compilations of papers and poster sessions can be difficult to locate.
Beyer CM. Building Together: Collaborating with faculty to integrate information literacy into a first year inter-professionalism course. Poster presented at: The Medical Library Association Annual Meeting; May 2014; Chicago, IL.