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APA @ Sullivan University: The Reference List

A guide to the use of the American Psychological Association Manual of Style at Sullivan University.

Introduction

General Guidelines for the Reference List

The reference list provides the reader with information that is needed to locate the sources cited in your paper. Except for a few exceptions (classical works and personal communications, etc.), any source cited in your paper must have an entry in the reference list. 

  • Center the word References at the top of the page.
     
  • Reference entries are double-spaced with a hanging indent. The preferred font and font size is Times New Roman, font size 12.
     
  • Author(s) are listed last name first. Use the last name as well as the initials for the first and middle names for each author of a particular work. If there is not a middle name, leave the middle name initial out of the entry. The entries are in alphabetical order by the author's last name.
    • Up to seven (7) authors can be named in the reference entry. If there are more than 7 authors, you should name the first six authors and the last author along with an ellipsis (...) in between the sixth and last author.
       
    • If you have more than one source (more than 1 article or book) by the same author or authors, alphabetize by listing the earliest publication first.
       
    • If you have an editor or editor instead of an author, place the editor(s)' name in the author's position with either (Ed.) or (Eds.) after the names. 

Examples of APA 6 Reference Entries

Please remember, all sources listed on the reference page MUST also be correctly cited in-text (that is, the body of the essay).

Go to the IN-TEXT CITATIONS of this guide for general guidelines, a chart, and examples.

  • Reference entries are double-spaced with a hanging indent. The preferred font and font size is Times New Roman, font size 12. The reference list entries are placed in alphabetical order by the author's last name (if there is no author, the entry is alphabetized in the list by the name of the title).
     
  • Author(s):
    • Author(s) are listed last name first. Use the last name as well as the initials for the first and middle names for each author of a particular work. If there is not a last name, do not include the initial for a middle name. 
    • Up to seven (7) authors can be named in the reference entry. If there are more than 7 authors, you should name the first six authors and the last author along with an ellipsis (...) in between the sixth and last author.
    • If you have more than one source (more than 1 article or book) by the same author or authors, alphabetize by listing the earliest publication first.
    • If you have an editor or editor instead of an author, place the editor(s)' name in the author's position with either (Ed.) or (Eds.) after the names. 
       
  • Title of book:
    • Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and the subtitle as well as any proper nouns.
    • Italicize the title.
    • If the book title is a later edition, place the number of the edition along with ed. in parentheses after the title. Do not italicize. Example: 5th ed.
       
  • Publisher (for print books)
    • The location of the publisher in the United States includes the city and state (use the two-letter U.S. Postal Service abbreviation for state). In past editions, APA did not require the state name for major cities, such as New York. Now, APA 6 requires the state name for any city. Outside the U.S., the location includes the city and the country.
    • The publisher's name should be brief. According to page 187 in the APA 6 manual, "omit" terms such as Publishers, Co., and Inc. Include the words Press and Books.

THE REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES FOR PRINT AND ONLINE BOOKS ARE VERY SIMILAR. Notice that the first part of a book reference entry is the same for all formats (print, online from website, and online from a database). The highlighted sections show the difference (a publisher/publisher location entry in a print book; a website retrieval statement for the website version; a database retrieval statement for the database version).


General print book format:

Author, A. A. (Publication Year). Title of the book. Location of the Publisher: Publisher.

(Examples are available by clicking the APA 6 reference entries document at the top left side of the page).


General online book format (if the book is from a web site, not an online database):

Author, A. A. (Publication Year). Title of the book. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE WEB ADDRESS: Sometimes the web address to a source can be very long or complicated. In those cases, you may be able to use the main page on which a link to the book can be found (i.e., the publisher's page with a listing of the books, etc.). The reason for a reference entry is to provide directional information on where the source can be found. If a link to the book can be found from a publisher's website (and the web address leading to the actual source is very long and complicated), listing the publisher's web address is an option. See the fourth point on page 191 of the APA 6 manual for more information.

 

 

(Examples are available by clicking the APA 6 reference entries document at the top left side of the page).


General online book format (if the book is from an online database):

Author, A. A. (Publication Year). Title of the book. Retrieved from Name of database.

MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE DATABASE NAME: Though APA 6 does not specifically encourage the use of the database name, the listing of the database name is another way to locate a source. It is recommended that, if a book is found on an electronic database, that the database name be used in a retrieval statement. If you found the article using a database that is part of an electronic database collection such as EBSCOhost, it is also acceptable to use the name of the collection in the retrieval statement, if preferred.
 
 

(Examples are available by clicking the APA 6 reference entries document at the top left side of the page).


Note:

  • There are some variations from the general book format depending on the type of source used (i.e., an online book for an e-reader, an encyclopedia entry, etc.). 
  • If you do not see an example that matches your reference type, please consult the APA 6 manual for more information. If you cannot find an exact example in the APA 6 manual, it is recommended that you use the format of an example that is most like your source.

Please remember, all sources listed on the reference page MUST also be correctly cited in-text (that is, the body of the essay).

Go to the IN-TEXT CITATIONS of this guide for general guidelines, a chart, and examples.

Scholarly Journal Format

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of the article. Title of the Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. Insert either a Digital Object Identifier (doi), Retrieved from Name of database, or Retrieved from web address.

 

  • See the section below for more information on when to use the DOI, the Database Name, or a website. If the DOI is available, this is preferred for a reference entry. DO NOT place a period after a DOI. If a web address is used, DO NOT hyperlink or use a period after the web address. Try to keep the web address together, do not separate between lines if at all possible.
  • The issue number is not used unless each issue of the journal starts with page 1. Most journals continue pagination for a particular volume. For example, if Volume 1, issue 1 of a journal starts on page 1 but Volume 1, issue 2 starts on page 125, the issue number is not needed in the entry.

 

(Examples are available by clicking the APA 6 reference entries document on the left side of the page. Information about the Digital Object identifier, including a handout and video, can be found below and to the left of this page).

 


Popular Magazine/Trade Magazine Format

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Title of the article. Title of the Magazine, volume number(issue number), page numbers. If the magazine is online, insert either Retrieved from Name of database or Retrieved from a web address.

  • Issue numbers are almost always included with popular magazine reference entries since the pagination of a magazine usually starts on page 1 for each issue.
  • The date includes the year and month of publication. If the magazine has more than one issue a month, the day is also used. Be sure to spell out the month.
  • If the article was found using an electronic database, a retrieval statement listing the database can be used. If the article was found on a website, the web address of the journal or the journal's publisher can be used. If a web address is used, DO NOT hyperlink or use a period after the web address. The web address should "stay together." Do not separate the web addresss if at all possible; keep on the same line.

(Examples are available by clicking the APA 6 reference entries document on the left side of the page).


Newspaper Format

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Title of the article. Title of the Newspaper, pp. page numbers. If the newpaper is online, include Retrieved from newspaper's web address

  • The date includes the year and month of publication. If the magazine has more than one issue a month, the day is also used. Be sure to spell out the month.
  • Use p. or pp. before the page numbers.
  • If the article was found using an electronic database, a retrieval statement listing the database can be used. If the article was found on a website, the web address of the journal or the journal's publisher can be used. If a web address is used, DO NOT hyperlink or use a period after the web address.
  • See http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/cite-newspaper.aspx for more information.

(Examples are available by clicking the APA 6 reference entries document on the left side of the page).


Want to see some examples? If so, please click the "Examples" PDF document on the left side of the page. 

Examples include print and online scholarly journals, popular magazines, and newspapers.  

The examples show how to format a periodical with a DOI, from an electronic database, and from the web.  Included are examples demonstrating the entry format with one author, two to seven authors, eight or more authors, and no authors. Information about the use of Google Scholar is also included.

If you do not see an example that matches your reference type, please consult the APA 6 manual for more information. If you cannot find an exact example in the APA 6 manual, it is recommended that you use the format of an example that is most like your source.  

Reference entries are double-spaced with a hanging indent. The preferred font and font size is Times New Roman, font size 12. The reference list entries are placed in alphabetical order by the author's last name (if there is no author, the entry is alphabetized in the list by the name of the title).​

  • Author(s):
    • Author(s) are listed last name first. Use the last name as well as the initials for the first and middle names for each author of a particular work. If there is not a last name, do not include the initial for a middle name. 
    • Up to seven (7) authors can be named in the reference entry. If there are more than 7 authors, you should name the first six authors and the last author along with an ellipsis (...) in between the sixth and last author.
    • If you have more than one source (more than 1 article) by the same author or authors, alphabetize by listing the earliest publication first.
    • If you have an editor or editor instead of an author, place the editor(s)' name in the author's position with either (Ed.) or (Eds.) after the names.
       
  • Publication Date:
    • The format of the publication date will vary depending on the source (journal, magazine, newspaper, etc.).
    • If a date cannot be found (n.d.) can be used.
       
  • Title of the article from a journal, magazine, or newspaper, etc.
    • Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the article and the first letter of the first word of any subtitle. Capitalize proper nouns. 
       
  • Title of the source (journal, magazine, newspaper, etc.)
    • Capitalize the first letter of all the words with at least 4 letters in a journal, magazine, or newspaper title. All proper nouns (names of people, companies, countries, etc.) should always be capitalized.
    • Italicize the title of a magazine, newspaper, or journal title as well as the volume number (if any).
       
  • Locator information 
    • In general, the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be used (if available). If there is not a DOI, a print source will not have a locator statement. Online periodicals without a DOI will use 1) a database name if found on an electronic database or 2) a web address if the source came from a website. 

PLEASE FOLLOW THE STEPS BELOW TO DECIDE WHETHER TO USE A DOI, 
A DATABASE NAME, OR A PUBLISHER'S WEBSITE. 

To print out a flowchart listing the steps please refer to the PDF below entitled DOI flowchart.


STEP 1:

Does the article or periodical item have a Digital Object Identifier (doi)? If so, please use the doi.

Example

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of the article. Title of the Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. doi: 10.xxxxx/xxxxxx

 

NOTE: The xxxxx stands for the actual DOI -- the DOI will have both numbers and letters.  For more information about the DOI, including how to find and use them please refer to the PDF below entitled How to Locate the DOI.

 
 

STEP 2:

If there is not a DOI, did the article or periodical item come from a print source? If yes, there is no additional information left to be added to the reference entry.

Example

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of the article. Title of the Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

 

 

STEP 3:

If the article or periodical item was obtained online, did the item come from an electronic database? If so, add a retrieval statement listing the database or database collection. 

Example

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of the article. Title of the Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. Retrieved from Name of database.

 
 

STEP 4:

Did you obtain the article from a web site? If so,  please list the web address in a retrieval statement. Usually, it is best to list the article's web site. If the article's web site is very long, you can use the web address of the periodical item's publisher/owner. Remember, the web address is a way to find the article.  

Example

Author', A. A. (Date). Title of the article. Title of the Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. Retrieved from http://xxxxxx

 

NOTE: xxxxx stands for the web address. Do not place a period after the web address in your reference list entry.  

The following is a 3-minute video by APA that provides information about the DOI and how to find it. You can use the full-screen icon within the video to enlarge the display. The video explains how to find the DOI in a journal and from various databases, including EBSCOhost.

Please remember, all sources listed on the reference page MUST also be correctly cited in-text (that is, the body of the essay).

Go to the IN-TEXT CITATIONS of this guide for general guidelines, a chart, and examples.

This provides information on how to create a reference entry for articles and resources from specific electronic (online) databases.
 
VERY IMPORTANT: If you find an article from an electronic database, first check for the Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
 
If a DOI is not available, use the database name in a retrieval statement. For more information, go to the "How to Locate Periodical Retrieval Information," located on the left side of the page. 

 
The EBSCOhost (EBSCO) Database Collection (includes Academic Search Premier, Business Source Complete, and MasterFile Premier, as well as other databases). The ProQuest Database Collection(includes Accounting & Tax, Alt-Press Watch, ProQuest Career and Technical Education, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses)
 
General information:
The reference follows the regular APA 6 rules for the type of source (i.e., scholarly article, popular magazine, or newspaper article). At the end of the reference entry, a retrieval statement is listed. The retrieval statement contains the name of the database (or the name of the database collection).   

Scholarly Journal Article found using an EBSCOhost or ProQuest Database

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of the article. Title of the Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. Retrieved from Name of EBSCOhost or ProQuest database. 

  • The issue number is not used unless each issue of the journal starts with page 1. Most journals continue pagination for a particular volume. For example, if Volume 1, issue 1 of a journal starts on page 1 but Volume 1, issue 2 starts on page 125, the issue number is not needed in the entry.
  • The name of a Database Collection (such as EBSCOhost) is also acceptable in the retrieval statement.

Popular Magazine/Trade Magazine found using an EBSCOhost or ProQuest Database

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Title of the article. Title of the Magazine, volume number(issue number), page numbers. Retrieved from Name of EBSCOhost or ProQuest database. 

  • Issue numbers are almost always included with popular magazine reference entries since the pagination of a magazine usually starts on page 1 for each issue.
  • The date includes the year and month of publication. If the magazine has more than one issue a month, the day is also used. Be sure to spell out the month.
  • The name of a Database Collection (such as ProQuest) is also acceptable in the retrieval statement. 

Newspaper Article found using an EBSCOhost or ProQuest Database

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Title of the article. Title of the Newspaper, pp. page numbers. Retrieved from Name of EBSCOhost or ProQuest database. 

  • The date includes the year and month of publication. If the magazine has more than one issue a month, the day is also used. Be sure to spell out the month.
  • Use p. or pp. before the page numbers.
  • If the article was found using an electronic database, a retrieval statement listing the database can be used. If the article was found on a website, the web address of the journal or the journal's publisher can be used. If a web address is used, DO NOT hyperlink or use a period after the web address.
  • See http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/cite-newspaper.aspx for more information.
  • The name of a Database Collection (such as EBSCOhost,)is also acceptable in the retrieval statement. 

Master's Thesis found using ProQuest's Dissertations & Theses Database (see page 207 in the APA 6 Manual for more information)

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of the master's thesis (Master's thesis). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (Accession number) 

 

Doctoral Dissertation found using ProQuest's Dissertations & Theses Database (see page 207 in the APA 6 Manual for more information)

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of the dissertation (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (Accession number) 

  • The word "Retrieved" is used in the reference entry. The APA 6 Manual shows examples listing both "Retrieved" (see page 207) and "Available" (see page 208, example 40). To remain consistent, "Retrieved" will be used.
  • After the title, place either (Master's thesis) or (Doctoral dissertation) in parentheses to identify the type of article.
  • ProQuest Dissertations & Theses provides an accession or order number with each master's theses or doctoral dissertation. This number helps the reader to locate the thesis or dissertation. The accession number should be listed in parentheses at the end of the retrieval statement. Do not place a period at the end of the accession number. 

(Examples are available by clicking the APA 6 reference entries document at the top left side of the page).


 
Mergent Online (Mergent Online provides information about businesses and industries)
 
General information:
Mergent Online contains company information as well as financial and industry reports. The user can also find news reports related to a company.  
 
The results from a company search using Mergent will have many sections, including: a description, a history, industry information, a financial summary, SEC Filings, a competitors' list, a people & contacts section, and other components.
 
News & Press information can also be accessed using Mergent Online.
 

Company Information found using Mergent Online

Mergent, Inc. (Year of Publication). Name of the Company: Section. Retrieved from Mergent Online database.  

  • Mergent, Inc. is the corporate author. There is not a named person.
  • It can be difficult to find a stated copyright date. Look at the company synopsis to view when the various categories were last updated. Use the year for the most recent date. 
  • List the name of the company by capitalizing the first letter of each word in the company's name since it is a proper name. List the section of the Mergent Online database that you are using for the reference entry (i.e., Company Details: History, Ownership, etc.). This will help the reader locate the proper section.

News Headlines found using Mergent Online

In viewing the News articles for a company using Mergent Online, a results list will appear. These news items will only be on Mergent Online for a short period of time. Clicking on any of the results rprovides a short synopsis of the story. Clicking the Full Story link on this page leads to another web page that is NOT affiliated with Mergent Online. In these cases, use the APA 6 style format for citing an article from a web page or citing a web page. The retrieval statement will include the web address where the news article or SEC filing was found. The Mergent Online database would NOT be included in the retrieval statement.

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of the article. Title of the Source. Retrieved from http://xxx.xxxx 
  • If there is not an author or a corporate author, the title of the article or news item would go in the Author position.
  • The source may be an online newspaper article, an online magazine article, an item from corporate entity web page, etc.
  • The web address is the web address of the article, etc. It is not the web address to Hoover's Online.
  • Do not underline the web address. Do not place a period after the web address. Try to keep the web address on one line, if possible.

(Examples are available by clicking the APA 6 reference entries document at the top left side of the page).


  Opposing Viewpoints (There are two databases within Opposing Viewpoints. The databases are: Opposing Viewpoints in Context and Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. The Opposing Viewpoints databases provide information on social issues. Includes viewpoints, articles, and other types of information)
 

Viewpoint Essay found using Opposing Viewpoints in Context

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of the viewpoint essay. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Viewpoints Book Title. Retrieved from Opposing Viewpoints in Context database.  

  • In Opposing Viewpoints in Context, the author is listed in the first paragraph of the essay. If there is not an author, the title of the viewpoint essay would be placed in the author's position.
  • The Viewpoints Book Title is listed in a smaller font after the viewpoints essay title along with the year of publication.
  • A citation provided by Opposing Viewpoints can be found at the end of the essay. This can be used to locate the editor of a Viewpoints Book. If there is not an editor listed, or you are unsure whether there is an editor, do not use in your reference entry. DO NOT use the citation example shown at the end of the essay for your reference entry; it is not formatted in APA 6 style. 
  • It is also acceptable to use database collection Opposing Viewpoints in the retrieval statement instead of Opposing Viewpoints in Context since Opposing Viewpoints in Context is one of the databases in the Opposing Viewpoints database collection. 

Academic Journal Articles, Magazine Articles, Statistics, Videos, and other items found using Opposing Viewpoints in Context

Opposing Viewpoints in Context provides the full text to articles and/or videos on its web pages. There is usually not a link leading a user to the source of the article, statistic, etc. In creating a reference entry, use the APA 6 style that is appropriate for the format (article from a journal, magazine, newpaper, etc.) listing Opposing Viewpoints in Context in the retrieval statement. 

 

Here is the format that can be used for an academic journal article found using Opposing Viewpoints in Context:

 

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of the article. Title of the Journal, volume(issue), xx-xx. Retrieved from Opposing Viewpoints in Context database.

  • If there is not an author or a corporate author, the title of the article would go in the author position.
  • Use what is available. In many cases, you may not have page numbers (xx-xx) so the page numbers would not be included in your reference entry. 
  • DO NOT use the citation example shown at the end of the article; it is not formatted in APA 6 style. The citation example may list the volume number.
  • It is also acceptable to use the database collection Opposing Viewpoints in the retrieval statement instead of Opposing Viewpoints in Context since Opposing Viewpoints in Context is one of the databases in the Opposing Viewpoints database collection.

(Examples are available by clicking the APA 6 reference entries document at the top left side of the page).


Books 24X7
 
General information:
Books 24X7 provides access to electronic books (e-books), primarily in the areas of business and information technology.

E-Book found using Books 24X7

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of the book. Retrieved from Books 24X7 database.  

  • If there is not an author or a corporate author, the title of the article would go in the author position.

(Examples are available by clicking the APA 6 reference entries document at the top left side of the page).

Reference entries are double-spaced with a hanging indent. The preferred font and font size is Times New Roman, font size 12. The reference list entries are placed in alphabetical order by the author's last name (if there is no author, the entry is alphabetized in the list by the name of the title).

  • Author(s):
    • Author(s) are listed last name first. Use the last name as well as the initials for the first and middle names for each author of a particular work. If there is not a last name, do not include the initial for a middle name. 
    • Up to seven (7) authors can be named in the reference entry. If there are more than 7 authors, you should name the first six authors and the last author along with an ellipsis (...) in between the sixth and last author.
    • If you have more than one source (more than 1 article) by the same author or authors, alphabetize by listing the earliest publication first.
    • If you have an editor or editor instead of an author, place the editor(s)' name in the author's position with either (Ed.) or (Eds.) after the names. 
       
  • Publication Date:
    • The format of the publication date will vary depending on the source (journal, magazine, newspaper, etc.).
    • If a date cannot be found (n.d.) can be used. 
       
  • Title of the article from a journal, magazine, or newspaper, etc.
    • Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the article and the first letter of the first word of any subtitle. Capitalize proper nouns. 
  • Title of the source (journal, magazine, newspaper, etc.)
    • Capitalize the first letter of all the words with at least 4 letters in a journal, magazine, or newspaper title. All proper nouns (names of people, companies, countries, etc.) should always be capitalized.
    • Italicize the title of a magazine, newspaper, or journal title as well as the volume number (if any).
       
  • Locator information 
    • The database or database collection will be listed in a retrieval statement, i.e., Retrieved from Database Name database. APA uses the word "database" at the end of a retrieval statement listing a database. See example 40 on page 208 in the APA 6 Manual for more information. 
       
    • If the reference entry is for an article found on an electronic database, always check for a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). If the DOI is available, it will be used in the reference entry. If there is not a DOI, a retrieval statement listing the database will be used.  

Want to see some examples?If so, please click the "Examples" PDF document at the top of the page (on the left). 

There are examples from the EBSCOhost databases (Academic Search Premier, CINAHL with Full Text, MasterFile Premier, Newspaper Source, ERIC, and Business Source Complete), the ProQuest databases (ProQuest Career and Technical Education,  Accounting & Tax, Alt-Press Watch, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses), Mergent Online, and Opposing Viewpoints in Context.   

The examples show how to format the following items found using an electronic database:

  • a scholarly journal article with one author
  • a scholarly journal article with two to seven authors
  • a scholarly journal article with eight or more authors
  • a popular magazine article with one author
  • a newspaper article without an author
  • a company profile (Business Source Complete & Mergent Online)
  • a government report (ERIC)
  • a newspaper article listing "Anonymous" as the author,
  • a Master's thesis
  • a Doctoral dissertation
  • news and press information (Mergent Online)
  • a viewpoint essay.

If you do not see an example that matches your reference type, please consult the APA 6 manual for more information. If you cannot find an exact example in the APA 6 manual, it is recommended that you use the format of an example that is most like your source. 

Please remember, all sources listed on the reference page MUST also be correctly cited in-text (that is, the body of the essay).

Go to the IN-TEXT CITATIONS of this guide for general guidelines, a chart, and examples.

The APA Style Blog contains detailed information, including a link to a PDF chart, about the creation of a reference entry for webpages.   The Quick Answers-References portion of the APA Style Web provides information about referencing webpages, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, etc. 

The information below is about webpages and social media. If you are creating a reference entry for an online periodical article, book, or brochure that is found on a website, please use the tabs above to go to the appropriate section (Books, Periodicals, or  Other Sources under the Reference tab).

General Webpage Format

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of the webpage. Retrieved from http://www.xxx.xxxxx

  • If there is a corporate author (a company, organization, or university), this is placed in the author's position.
  • If there is not an author listed on the webpage, the title of the webpage would be listed first (in the author's position).
  • If the date is unknown, place (n.d.) in the date position. If the date information is known, list the year, the month (if known), and day (if known). Spell out the month.
  • The title of the webpage is not italicized. The first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle (if any), and proper nouns are capitalized. 
  • Only, and only IF the reference entry is listing an ENTIRE WEBSITE, should the title be italicized. If you are unsure about whether the entry is a webpage or a website, do not italicize. Usually, according to the APA Style Blog, if you are citing an ENTIRE website, it is acceptable to give the title and the web address within the text of the paper  (a reference entry for the website is not needed). If you are also including an ENTIRE website as a reference entry, click here for more information. 
  • Do not underline the web address or place a period after the web address. Try not to separate the web address if at all possible.

(Examples are available by clicking the APA 6 reference entries document at the top left side of the page).


Blog Posting Format

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of the blog post [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.xxx.xxxx

  • If the author uses a screen name or pseudonym, and his/her true name cannot be found, use the screen name in the author position.
  • The date includes the year , month, and day of publication. Be sure to spell out the month.
  • Use [Web log post] to describe the entry. The use of [Blog post] is also acceptable. See the example on page 215 of the APA 6 manual and the APA Style Blog for examples. 
  • DO NOT hyperlink or use a period after the web address. The web address should "stay together." Do not separate the web addresss if at all possible; keep on the same line.

(Examples are available by clicking the APA 6 reference entries document at the top left side of the page. In addition to a blog post example, you will also find an example of a comment to a blog post).


Online Video Format (YouTube, etc.)

Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title of the video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxx.xxxx

  • Often the video poster may use a screen name or pseudonym. In that case, the screen name or pseudonym is also listed in brackets, along with the author's name. Use the exact punctuation and spelling that is used for the screen name on the webpage. According to the APA Style Blog, a reference entry for an online video should include both the screen name and author name, if available. This helps the reader to locate the video. 
  • If ONLY the screen name is available, use the screen name in the author position.
  • The date includes the year, month, and day of posting on the web. Be sure to spell out the month.
  • The title of the video is italicized. Only the first word is capitalized, along with any proper names and the first word of a subtitle.
  • Use [Video file] to describe the entry.
  • Use the complete web address if at all possible. Do not underline the web address. DO NOT hyperlink or use a period after the web address. Try not to separate the web address.

Facebook Entry

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of the entry [Facebook update]. Retrieved from http://www.xxx.xxxxx

  • If an author is listed with both first and last names, list as a typical APA 6 author entry. Otherwise, list the author exactly as written in the Facebook entry.
  • If there is not an author listed, use the title of the Facebook entry in the author position.
  • The date includes the year, month, and day of posting on the web. Be sure to spell out the month.
  • If there is not a designated title, use a truncated version of the entry (for example, the first sentence). The title of the entry is not italicized. Only the first word is capitalized, along with any proper names and the first word of a subtitle. See theAPA Style Blog entry "How to Cite Twitter and Facebook, Part II: Reference List Entries and In-Text Citations" for more information.
  • Use [Facebook update] to describe the entry.
  • Use the complete web address if at all possible. Do not underline the web address. DO NOT hyperlink or use a period after the web address. Try not to separate the web address.

Twitter Entry

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of the tweet [Twitter post]. Retrieved from http://xxx.xxxx

  • If an author is listed with both first and last names, list as a typical APA 6 author entry. Otherwise, list the author exactly as written in the Twitter post.
  • If there is not an author listed, use the title of the Twitter entry in the author position.
  • The date includes the year, month, and day of posting on the web. Be sure to spell out the month.
  • There will usually not be a designated title for the Tweet. If the Tweet is short, the entire Tweet can be listed but, if long, a truncated version of the entry can be used (for example, the first sentence). The title of the entry is not italicized. Only the first word is capitalized, along with any proper names and the first word of a subtitle.  See the APA Style Blog entry "How to Cite Twitter and Facebook, Part II: Reference List Entries and In-Text Citations" for more information. 
  • Use [Twitter post] to describe the entry.
  • Use the complete web address if at all possible. Do not underline the web address. DO NOT hyperlink or use a period after the web address. Try not to separate the web address. 

(Examples are available by clicking the APA 6 reference entries document at the top left side of the page).


Want to see some examples? If so, please click the "Examples" PDF document on the left side of the page. 

Examples include a webpage with an author, a webpage with a corporate author, a webpage without an author or publication date, a blog posting, a comment to a blog entry, an online video (YouTube), a Facebook posting, and a Twitter entry. 

If you do not see an example that matches your reference type, please consult the APA 6 manual for more information. If you cannot find an exact example in the APA 6 manual, it is recommended that you use the format of an example that is most like your source.

Reference entries are double-spaced with a hanging indent. The preferred font and font size is Times New Roman, font size 12. The reference list entries are placed in alphabetical order by the author's last name (if there is no listed author, the entry is alphabetized in the list by the corporate entity. If there is not a corporate entity, the entry is alphabetized by the name of the title).

 

Author(s):

  • Author(s) are listed last name first. Use the last name as well as the initials for the first and middle names for each author of a particular work. If there is not a last name, do not include the initial for a middle name. 
  • Up to seven (7) authors can be named in the reference entry. If there are more than 7 authors, you should name the first six authors and the last author along with an ellipsis (...) in between the sixth and last author.
  • Many webpages have corporate authors (a group, organizations, company, university, etc.). Use the full name of the corporate author.
  • With blog postings, online videos, as well as Facebook and Twitter entries, a screen name is often used. If the author's true name cannot be found, the screen name (use exact spelling) can be used. For online videos, list BOTH the author's name and screen name (in brackets), if available (example; Author, A. A. [Screen name]).
  • If you have more than one source (more than 1 article, webpage, or book) by the same author or authors in the reference list, alphabetize by listing the earliest publication first.

 

Date

  • The date of publication (posting) on the web should be listed after the author within parentheses. The year, month, and day (if available) is included. For example: (2012, February 23).
  • For online videos, use the date of posting online, even if video was created at an earlier date.

 

Title

  • For webpages, blog entries, Facebook postings, and Twitter entries: Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and the subtitle as well as any proper nouns. Do not italicize. Webpages and blog entries, as well as Facebook and Twitter postings are "part of a whole," so are not italicized. See the APA Style Blog for more information.
  • For online videos (such as YouTube) and the ENTIRE website, the title is italicized. Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and the subtitle as well as any proper nouns. Online videos and websites are stand-alone items, so are italicized. See the APA Style Blog for more information. If the entire website is being used as a "passing reference" within the paper, the APA Style Blog recommends that "no reference entry is needed." See the APA Style Blog - Quick Answers- References for more information.

 

Format description

  • A format description is often included in brackets after the title for blog entries, online videos, and Facebook and Twitter postings. Examples include: [Web log post], [Video file], [Facebook update], and [Twitter post].

 

Retrieval statement

  • A web address is listed in the retrieval statement (Example: Retrieved from http://www.yahoo.com/finance).
  • The listed web address is usually the complete web address. If the web address is very long, it can be truncated, but leave enough of the web address to assist a reader in locating the source.
  • Do not underline (hyperlink) the web address.
  • Do not place a period after the web address.

Please remember, all sources listed on the reference page MUST also be correctly cited in-text (that is, the body of the essay).

Go to the IN-TEXT CITATIONS of this guide for general guidelines, a chart, and examples.

There are variations in the reference entry format, depending on the source.  


General print brochure/pamphlet format:

Corporate author. (Publication Year). Title of the brochure [Brochure]. Location of the Publisher: Publisher. 

  • Brochures and pamphlets are often written by corporate authors (a company, group, corporation, or school). If so, the name of the company, etc. is listed as the corporate author. If the brochure is written by a person (an author), he or she would be placed in the corporate author spot. The author would be listed as follows: Last name, Initial of first name. Initial of middle name.
  • Often the corporate author is also the publisher. In that case, the word Author would be placed in the publisher spot.
  • If there is not a date on the brochure, n.d. would go in the publication year spot.
  • If the document is a pamphlet, the word [Pamphlet] would go in the brochure spot.

What if the brochure/pamphlet is found online?:

  • The online brochure/pamphlet entry is the same as the print brochure/pamphlet entry (without the publication data). There is also a retrieval statement listing the web page where the brochure/pamphlet is found. Do not place a period after the web address.

Corporate author. (Publication Year). Title of brochure [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://xxx.xxxx

  • Brochures and pamphlets are often written by corporate authors (a company, group, corporation, or school). If so, the name of the company, etc. is listed as the corporate author. If the brochure is written by a person (an author), he or she would be placed in the corporate author spot. The author would be listed as follows: Last name, Initial of first name. Initial of middle name.
  • If there is not a date on the brochure, n.d. would go in the publication year spot.
  • If the document is a pamphlet, the word [Pamphlet] would go in the brochure spot.
  • List the web address where the brochure can be found. Do not underline the web address. Do not place a period after the web address. Try to keep the web address on one line if possible.

Sources from Coursepacks (articles, essays, etc.):

  • A courspack is a compilation of materials (essays, articles, etc.) that were placed in a bound format by a faculty member for a class. APA 6 provides no specific instructions on how to cite an item from a coursepack. However, in viewing other universities' APA 6 instructions, many tend to view this item as part of an anthology (compilation). The faculty member is treated as an editor in APA 6.
  • If you CAN FIND COMPLETE INFORMATION ABOUT THE SOURCE (article, essay, etc.) OUTSIDE OF THE COURSEPACK, format your APA 6 reference entry using APA 6 style for that source (i.e., format as a journal article found on a database, format as a journal article found in print, format as a journal article found online, etc.).
  • If you CANNOT FIND INFORMATION ABOUT THE SOURCE outside of the coursepack, the following format can be used to create a reference entry.

This following format is for a scholarly journal article found in a coursepack.

Author, A. A. (Year that the Coursepack was Created). Title of the article. In A. A. Faculty (Ed.). Course number: Title of the coursepack (pp. xx-xx). Louisville, KY: Sullivan University. (Reprinted from Title of the Journal, volume number(issue number), pp. xx-xx, Year of Publication).  

  • The author is the author of the article. There may be more than one author.
  • The year that the coursepack was created is often found on the first page or cover of the coursepack. If you do not find a date, use n.d.
  • The faculty member who compiled the coursepack is the editor.
  • The page numbers after the coursepack title are the page numbers where the article can be found in the coursepack.
  • The title of the journal is the publication (journal) in which the article was originally published. Include any other data that you can find (volume number, issue number, page numbers in the journal where the article can be found). If any of the data is missing, do not include in the reference entry.
  • The year of publication is the year that the journal containing the article was published.

Audio-Video Resources:

The APA 6 Manual provides information and examples for many different types of audio-video formats on pages 209-210.

The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) also provides excellent examples of how to create a reference entry with audio-video sources. Within the OWL website, there are examples of reference entries for motion pictures (films), television broadcasts and series episodes, and musical recordings. See OWL athttp://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/11/ for more information.


Want to see some examples? If so, please click the PDF document at the top left of the page.  

Examples include brochures (pamphlets) and coursepacks.  

  • Reference entries are double-spaced with a hanging indent. The preferred font and font size is Times New Roman, font size 12. The reference list entries are placed in alphabetical order by the author's or editor's last name (if there is no listed author, the entry is alphabetized in the list by the corporate entity. If there is not a corporate entity, the entry is alphabetized by the name of the title).
  • Within the APA Style Blog, there is an excellent blog entry on how to find example references. Within this entry, there are tips and links to information about how to locate the author, date, title, publication information, as well as other types of useful information. 

There are a number of variations depending on the source. APA 6 will have more complete information about the style that will be applied to an individual type of source. Following are some general guidelines.

  • Author(s):
    • Sometimes a corporate author is listed. A corporate author is usually a company, group, organization, institution, or school. The corporate author goes into the author position for a reference list entry. Author(s) are listed last name first. Use the last name as well as the initials for the first and middle names for each author of a particular work. If there is not a last name, do not include the initial for a middle name. 
    • Up to seven (7) authors can be named in the reference entry. If there are more than 7 authors, you should name the first six authors and the last author along with an ellipsis (...) in between the sixth and last author.
    • If you have more than one source (more than 1 article or book) by the same author or authors, alphabetize by listing the earliest publication first.
    • If you have an editor or editor instead of an author, place the editor(s)' name in the author's position with either (Ed.) or (Eds.) after the names. 
  • Title:
    • The type of source will determine whether the title is italicized or not italicized. For example, an article from journal would not be italicized but the journal title itself would be italicized. Often, a source that is part of a bigger item is not italicized (i.e., an article that is part of a journal issue, a chapter of a book that is part of a complete book, a web page that is part of an overall website, etc). 
    • The type of source will determine capitalization (i.e., whether the first letter of the first word is capitalized or whether all of the words inthe title are capitalized).
  •  Date:
    • The type of source will determine the date. If there is a full date of publication (Year, Month, and Day), the complete date is often used (with the exception of journal articles). If a complete date is used, spell out the month, do not abbreviate.
  • Publisher:
    • The publisher is usually part of a reference entry for a print book. The publisher is often not part of the reference entry for periodicals and online items. almost always in the reference entry for a book or print item.
    • The location of the publisher in the United States includes the city and state (use the two-letter U.S. Postal Service abbreviation for state). In past editions, APA did not require the state name for major cities, such as New York. Now, APA 6 requires the state name for any city. Outside the U.S., the location includes the city and the country.
    • The publisher's name should be brief. According to page 187 in the APA 6 manual, "omit" terms such as Publishers, Co., and Inc. Include the words Press and Books.
  • Retrieval statement:
    • A retrieval statement is used for items found on web pages (if the item does not contain a Digital Object Identifier or was not found on an electronic database).
    • The web address is not underlined. There is not a period after the web address. The web address should be kept on one line if possible. If this is not possible, do not use a hyphen. Try not to break the web address after punctuation (break before punctuation).  
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